Erthygl o Gylchgrawn y Llyfrgell Genedlaethol cyfrol 1, rhif 2 (Gaeaf 1939)



Little has been written so far regarding the clothes worn by Welsh women in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and reliable infor mation is scarce. The Wigfair collection of manuscripts in the National Library contains one manuscript which throws some light on this subject. N.L.W. MS. 12,450 consists of lists of payments made by Ieuan ap Rees ap David of Wigfair to his serving maid 'Ellin vawr'. Many of the payments are in kind, and most of the entries relate to payments for clothes, materials, and the making up of these materials into clothes for Ellin, the said 'serving maid'. It is interesting to note that while the more complete list is in Welsh, a briefer and incomplete list in English, tallying, in so far as it goes, with the Welsh list, is also included. From the note at the beginning of the English list it would appear that both were compiled, or, as is more probably the case, copied, from an older original, as the result of an impending lawsuit in which Ieuan ap Rees ap David was the defendant and George Gryff' ap d'd ap m'dd and 'Ellin' his wife were the plaintiffs. It appears therefore that these lists were copied after Ellin's departure from Wigfair and after her marriage to George Gryff' ap d'd ap m'dd.

Ieuan ap Rees ap David of Wigfair, a member of the well-known Lloyd family of that place, and father of John Lloyd of Wigfair, burgess and recorder of Denbigh (ob. 1618), is said to have died in 1610 (see The History ... of Powys Fadog ... by J. Y. W. Lloyd, Vol. V, p. 303); although the year of his death is given as 16oo, with the added information that he was 'an aged gent', by D. R. Thomas in the introductory chapter to Y Cwtta Cyfarwydd ... London, 1883**. It is interesting to note that included in the Wigfair collection of manuscripts is a letter (N.L.W. MS. 12,401) in the autograph of the well-known Welsh poet Sion Tudur (ob. 1602) addressed to 'vy anwyl gar a chyfaill Ieuan ap Rys ap Davydd' (see Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, Vol. VII, pp. 112-117). In the same collection there are also several deeds, dated circa 1577, in which Ieuan ap Rees ap David appears as a party to the transfer of land or in financial transactions. In these deeds he is designated 'gentleman'.

The approximate date of the death of Ieuan ap Rees ap David being known, it is safe to assume that the lists relate to a time preceding that date, although it has to be borne in mind that the Welsh list appears to have been copied by his son, as it is endorsed 'Payments made to Elin my fathers mayd'.

Taking into consideration the number and variety of the clothes supplied to 'Ellin Vawr' by Ieuan ap Rees ap David, and the fact that they were intended for a serving maid, it would appear that the payments covered a number of years. Ieuan appears to have been a generous employer, as several of the items are described as having been made of his own cloth, and for these no charge was made.

It is interesting also to find the prices of the various articles of clothing mentioned, as well as the sums paid to the tailor, the fuller, and the dyer. While gloves were to be obtained for threepence a pair, and shoes at prices ranging from sixteen pence to two shillings a pair, a felt hat bought at Chester cost eight shillings, whilst another felt hat cost ten shillings. Linen or linen cloth was widely used for smocks, aprons, and partlets, while jerkins and petticoats appear to have been made usually of cloth or flannel. Stockings were made of wool or of 'kersie', some of the kersie being home-made and some of it being obtained 'o'r dre'.

In addition to such utilitarian articles of wear as smocks, petticoats, and aprons, Ellin was also supplied with linen and strings for her ruffs, fringe for her petticoats, a silk girdle for which eighteen pence was the amount paid to Richard the 'pedler', and a fillet for her hair.

The respective Welsh and English lists are printed below.


Taledigaethe i Ellin vawr oi chyflog gen Ieu'n ap Rees ap david sydd yn Calyn.
Kynta peth a gafodd pen oedd hi y glaf yr amser kynta i daeth hi attaf fo yw

Rhoi at i chwaer Siann y brynnv pethe ag oedd yn Rhaid iddi hivid.
I dalu am llivo gwlan iddi hiiiijs.
*Am wlan iddi hi
Am skidie iddi hiijs.
Arrian a royese Agnes vch Ieu'n i nechwyn iddi hi ag a delais i trosti hiiiijd.
Am liain main iddi hiiijs.
*llathen o gersi gwyn or eiddo i fy hvn.
Am llifo y kersi ymma yn bvwchiiijd.
Am wregis iddi hiiijd.
Am ysane davedd iddi hiixd.
Am skidie eilwaith iddi hiijs.
Am fenig iddi hi.iijd.
Am gorff pais iddi hiiiijd.
Am drwssio i ffais hiijd.
hett ffelt ynghaer iddi hiviijs.
Am dair llath o liain iddi hi yn grysiijs. vjd.
Am farckloth Main iddi hixijd.
Am ddevnyth gwregis iddi hi gen Alis vch david fy merch ynghyfraithiijd.
Am farckloth o frethin dvxvjd.
Am gorff pais iddi hiiijd.
Am drwssio eilwaith i ffais hi yr Tailiwr kloffijd.
Am grys iddi hiijs.
Am wnio y krys ag am snoden walltiiijd.
Am lathen o liain ir pedler iddi hixvjd.
Am skidie iddi hixvijd.
Am sane davedd iddi hi gen Sioned ach sionxd.
Am liain i drwssio ychrysiiijd.
Am wayv sane davedd iddi ichwaer Elnoriiijd.
Am lathen o liain i wnevthvr kwrsi iddi hixijd.
Am hanner lathen o liain i wnevthvr partlett iddi hixd.
Am hanner lathen o liain main iddi hi i wnevthvr Rwff partlett iddi hiijs.
Am par o fenig gen y pedler iddi hiiijd.
Am wenith gen Elizabeth vch Ieu'niiijs. xd.
Am hayidd gen forys i brawdijs. vjd.
Am wlan i wnevthvr dwy bais o beisie iddi hiiijs. vjd.
Am wnethvr y peisie hynnyiiijd.
Am bar o skidiexvjd.
Am frethin koch a gaed gen Sian i chwaer i wnevthvr pais iddi hivjs.
Am ffrinsg ir bais honnoxijd.
Am lathen o seckloth i wnevthvr korff ir bais honnoviijd.
Am bedair lathen o liain iddi hiiijs. viijd.
*Am grys o gowarch tuytho om llain i fy hvn
*Barckloth om brethyn i fy hvn
*Sane dafedd o waith gwraig Res ap Ieu'n ap ho'll .
Am hanner lathen o liain a brynnais i yn y vaynol i wnevthvr Rwil iddi hixd.
Am lathen o liain aeth i orffen i ffartlett ag i wnevthvr dav gap iddi hi a wnaeth merch R'b't ap Hugh lloyd
Am wnevthvr y rain y vch R'b't ap Hugh lloydxijd.
*Dav bar o skidie a wnaethbwyd yn ty iddi hi
*Dav grys o gowarch Truytho om liain i fy hvn a wnaeth merch R'b't ap Hugh lloyd
*Dav bar o sane brethin
Arrian parod a roed iddi ynghwydd Res ap Ieu'n ap Holl ar vnwaithliijs.
*Barckloth om brethin i fy hvn
*Svrkvn gwlanen om gwlanen i fy hvn
Am wregis sidan iddi hi i Richard y pedlerxviijd.
Am bar o fenig iddi hiiijd.
Am hanner llathen o liain iddi hivjd.
llathen o liain i wnevthvr dav gwrsi iddi hixvjd.
Par o fenig eilwaith iddi hiiijd.
*Dav farckloth ar vnwaith or vn am siacked i fo hvn
Tair lathen a hanner i wnevthvr krys iddi hiiijs. vjd.
Par o skidie iddi hixviijd.
Par o sane kersi or dre y thi hixiiijd.
Llathen o gersi kartref iddi hiijs.iiijd.
Am llifo y lathen gersi honnoiiijd.
Am wayv par o sane dafedd iddi hi i ferch Thomas ap John gruff'iiijd.
dim am yr y dafedd
At Elin i hvn i daly am fretbin koch a ddoetbe iddi oddiwrth i brawd sionvjs.ijd.
Am wnevthvr y brethin hwnnv yn bais iddi hiijd.
Am ffrinsg ir bais honnoxd.
Am dair lathen a hanner o liain iddi hi i wraig Res ap leu'n ap Resiijs. vjd.
Am farckloth o frethin dvxvd.
Am liain iw rhoi wrth partlett iddi hiiijd.
Am skidie ag snoden wallt iddi hixxjd.
Am hett felt a Brynnesid i mi fy hvniijs. vjd.
Am liain i drwssio i ffartlett hiiijd.
Am wlan i wnevthvr pais iddi hi
i Sion padrick am bannu y bais honnoiiijd.
Am ddevnytb barckloth o frethin medlai a llinynne ir barckloth hwnnvxixd.
Am llivo brethin iddi hixviijd.
*Ar brethin ymma a llifwyd oedd om brethin i fy hvn ag am hynny ni roed mor brethin nar pris yw ddangos arno
Am liain i wnevthvr kwrsi iddi hixviijd.
Am bar o fenig iddi hiiijd.
Am wlan i wnevthvr svrkin iddi hixiiijd.
Am wnevthvr y svrkin ymma iddi hi a ffar o saneijd.
Am lathen o liain main iddi hi gen Richard pedleriijs.
*Barckloth or brethin ir oeddid yn gwneythvr siacked i mi fy hvn
*Dwv bais wen a ffais goch a dav syrkin'gwlanen ar vnwaith a wnaeth Will'm Gruff' ap Sion dailiwr iddi hi erbyn y Pask
Am ffring ir bais goch a seckloth ir korffxxijd.
*Am wnevthvr y tair pais ar ddav svrkin gwlanen i Wm Gruff' ap Sion dailiwr
llathen o liain iddi hixviijd.
llathen o liain mayin a roed am dano yn llwdlow a brynnodd Evan lloyd i wnevthvr Rwffie iddi hi ag iminneiijs.
Pymp karrai a roed yn i Rwff hi a thair yn fy Rwff ynne
Am liain iw Rhoi wrth y Rwff ymmaxijd.
Am i gwnio yn tyxd.
Am chwarter o liain ag y snoden walltiiijd.
Am het fiiett [sic] a brynnwyd iddi y nghwydd Moris Padricke i brawd ynghyffraithXs.
*Am chwarter o gersi kartref
Am llifo y kersi ymmaijd.
llathen a banner chwarter o liain i wnevthvr Barckloth iddi hixvd.
Y dydd ir aeth hi a minne ir dref fo a Brynwyd iddi gen ffwlke Salbri dair llathen a hanner i wnevthvr krysIjs.xjd
llathen o liain mayinijs.
Hanner llathen trachfen [sic] iddi hixjd.
Llathen o skottis Clothviijd.
Hanner lathen iw Rhoi wrth i ffartlettviijd.
Harnner lathen i wnevthvr kydache wynebxxd.
Am las a fring a seckloth yw ffais goch ddiwaytha a wnaeth hi ai gwnethvriijs. vjd.
*Y brethyn a wneithid yn ty om gwlayn i fy hvn ag am hynny hid oes dim pris gwedi i Rhoi ar lawr am dano
Par o skidie gyn Tho. Lowes
*Kassocke heb law hyn om brethyn i fy hvn a chwbl ag aeth ar y gassog ag am i gwnevthvr
Hi a gafodd yn arrian parod wrth fyned i fforddiiijl xvijs.

A llawer o pethe eraill gida hyn ymma ni Rhoed mo honun yn skrifennig a llawer gida hynny a ollyngh[o]dd tros gof heb i Rhoi chwaith yn skrifennedig.

Payments made to Elin my fathers mayd.

A true and p[er]fect note of such things as Ieu'n ap Rees ap David def[endan]t at the sute of George Gruff' ap d'd ap me'dd & Ellin his weif paid to the said Ellin for her waige at such tymes as she the said Ellin served the said def [endan]t as his servant mayed as following

The first money that the said Ellin hadd of the said def[endan]t to buy unto her some thing by her sister Janevjd.
Item paid for dieinge of wolle for heriiijs.
*The same wole she hadd of the def[endan]ts owne woll & he sought nothinge for hit
Item paid for shooes to the said EllinIjs.
Item the def[endan]t paid for the said pl't' Ellin to Agnes vch Ieu'n wch the said Agnes hadd lente to the said Elliniiijd.
Item paid for fyne Cloth to heriijs.
*Item shee hadd a yarde of white kersie of wch was the def[endan]ts his owne kersie
Item for dyeinge of the same kersie in pwyckiiijd.
Item for a girdell for heriijd.
Item wollen hoase for herixd.
Item for another paire of shooes for herijs.
Item for a paire of gloves for heriijd.
Item for a body of a petticoate for heriiijd.
Item for mendinge of her petticoatijd.
Item for a ffealt hat for herviijs.
Item for three yards of lynnen cloth to make her a Smockiijs. vjd.
Item paid for anappron for herxvjd.
Item for a body of petticoate to heriiijd.
Item for mendinge of another petticoat for herijd.
Item for the Sowinge of a Smock for her & for a Snwde for heriiijd.
Item for a yarde of Clothe to herxvjd.
Item for another paire of shooes for herxvijd.
Item another paire of knitte hoose for herxd.
Item for lynnen Cloth to mende her Smockiiijd.
Item for knitting of a paire of wollen hose for heriiijd.
Item for a yarde of Cloth to make her a kerchifxijd.
Item for half a yarde of lynnen Cloth to make her a partlettxd.
Item for half a yarde of lynnen to make her a Ruffeijs.
Item for a paire of glovesiijd.
Item for wheat of Elizabeth vch Ieu'n wch was sould to the said Elizabeth & the pl't' Ellin hadd the moneyiiijs. xd.
Item the said Ellin Received of Moris her brother in lawe money for Barly wch was sould the said morisijs. vjd.
Item for wolle to make her two petticoatsiijs. vjd.
Item for the makinge of those petticoatsiiijd.
Item shooes to herxvjd.
Item paied for redd cloth to hervjs.
Item for ffringe to the same petticoatexijd.
Item for a yarde of seckloth to make her a body for the same petticoatviijd.
Item for fower yards of lynnen cloth for heriijs. viijd
*Item a Smock of the def[endan]ts owne cloth
*Item an appron of the def[endan]ts his owne wollen cloth
*Item a paire of wollen hoose of the def[endan]ts owne yarde
Item half a yarde of lynnen Cloth to make her a Ruffexd.
Item a yarde of Cloth to make her a partlett wth thothare half a yarde above spe'ied & to make her to cappes or litle kerchefs
Item for the makinge therof to R'b't ap Hugh lloyd his daughterxijd.
*Item two paire of shooes wch were made in the house & gevin her
*Item two Smock for her of the def[endan]ts owne Cloth
Item two paire of hose for her of the def[endan]ts owne Cloth
Item in readie money paied in p'sens of Rees ap Ieu'n ap ho'll
liijs. iiijd
*Item anapparn [sic] of the def[endan]ts his owne Cloth
Item two Cherkins of the def[endan]ts owne flan'en
Item for a girdell of silke for herxviijd.
Item for a paire of gloves for heriijd.
Item half a yarde of lynnen for hervjd.
Item a yarde of lynnen to make her two kerchefsxvjd.
Item a paire of gloves for heriijd.
*Item two apprans made at onest of the same cloth as the def[endan]ts owne coat was
Item three yards dymie of lynnen to make her a Smockijs. vjd
Item another paire of shooes for herxviijd.
Item a paire of hose of fyne kersiexiiijd.
Item a yarde of whome made kersieijs. iiijd.
Item for the dyeinge of the said kersieiiijd.
Item for knittinge of a paire of hose for heriiijd.
Item gave her to pay for redd Cloth wch came to her from her brother Johnvjs. ijd.
Item paid for the makinge of the same Cloth in a petticoate for herijd.
Item for fringe to the same Coatexd.
Item paid Res ap Ieu'n ap Rees his wief for three yards of lynnen Cloth for heriijs.vjd
Item for anappron of blacke Cloth for herxvd.
Item for cloth to be putt to a partlet for heriijd.
Item for Shoes & a Snode for herxxjd.
Item for a fealt hatte for heriijs.vjd.
Item for Cloth to mende her partlettiijd.
for wolle to make her a petticoat
Item to the fuller for ffullinge of the same petticoate wch was made for heriiijd.
Item for anappran and stringes to the same appranxixd.
Item for dyeinge of Cloth for herxviijd.
Item the same appran wch was died was the def[endan]ts owne cloth
Item for lynnen Cloth to make her kerchiefviijd.
Item for gloves for heriijd.
Item wolle to make her a Chirkinxiiij.
Item for the makinge of the said chirkin & for the makinge of a paire of hose for herijd.
Item for a yarde of lynnen cloth for her of Richard pedleriijs.
Item anappran of Cloth whereof the def[endan]ts owne Coat was made
Item two white petticoats and two Chirkins of flan'en made unto her at one tyme by Will'm Gruff' ap John Tailor of the def[endan]ts owne cloth
Item a womans coate for her of Redd cloth of the def[endan]ts owne cloth
Item for fringe for the same coatexxijd.
Item for the makinge of the said three woomens coats for her & those two chirkins to W'm Gruff' the tailor
Item another yarde of lynnen cloth for herxviijd.
Item for a yarde of fynne lynnen cloth wch Ieu'n Lloyd boughte in Loudl***iijs.
Item for lynnen cloth to putt to their Ruffes wch were made to her of the said fynne Clothijd.