Llythyron o Ryfel Cartref America

Cyfeirnod: NLW MS 22421D

 

Yn ystod Rhyfel Cartref, 1861-5, gwelodd y Taleithiau Unedig y brwydro mwyaf gwaedlyd yn eu hanes. Dengys casgliad o lythyron yn y Llyfrgell Genedlaethol fod ymfudwyr o Gymru wedi chwarae rhan uniongyrchol yn y rhyfela.

Rhestr o'r llythyron yn y llawysgrif

ff. 1-3 John Jones, Bryn y fedwen, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, 8 Mawrth 1860
f. 4 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll Randal, Madison, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, 31 Awst 1862
f. 5 John Griffith Jones, Pencadlys, Gwersyll Randal, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, Medi 1862
f.8 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll Randal, Madison at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 13 Medi 1862
f. 10 r. John Griffith Jones, Cincinnati, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 17 Medi 1862
f. 12 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin 19 Medi 1862
f. 14 John Griffith Jones, Cincinnati, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 19 x 20 Medi 1862
f. 15 Owen Owens at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 21 Medi 1862
ff. 16-17 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll Bates, Kentucky, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 21 Medi 1862
f. 19 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll Bates, Kentucky, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 28 Medi 1862
ff. 20-21 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 12 Hydref 1862
ff. 23-24 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 20 Hydref 1862
ff. 26-27 John Griffith Jones, Cincinnati, Ohio, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 24 Hydref 1862
ff. 29-30 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 30 Hydref 1862
ff. 31-32 John Griffith Jones, Lexington, Kentucky, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 2 Tach. 1862
ff. 34-35 John Griffith Jones, Louiseville, Kentucky, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 16 Tach. 1862
ff. 37-38 John Griffith Jones, Memphis, Tennessee at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 28 Tach. 1862
ff.40-41 John Griffith Jones, Memphis, Tennessee at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 2 Rhag. 1862
f. 43-44 John Griffith Jones, Memphis, Tennessee at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 14 Rhag.1862
ff. 46-47 John Griffith Jones, Memphis, Tennessee at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 20 Rhag. 1862
ff. 49-52 John Griffith Jones, Yazoo River, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 2 Ion. 1863
f. 54 John Griffith Jones, Ohio Belle, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 5 Ion. 1863
ff. 56-57 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 18 Ion. 1863
f. 58 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 24 Ion. 1863
f. 60 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 30 Ion. 1863
f.61 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 7 Chwef. 1863
ff. 62-63 Thomas S. Hughes, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 19 Chwef. 1863
f.65 Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, at John Griffith Jones, 27 Chwef. 1863
f. 66 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 1 Mawrth, 1863
f. 68 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 6 Mawrth, 1863
f. 70 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Mulligan Bend, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 13 Mawrth, 1863
f.72 John Griffith Jones, Millikens Bend, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 23 Mawrth, 1863
ff. 75-76 John Griffith Jones, Millikens Bend, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 30 Mawrth, 1863
ff. 77-78 r. John Griffith Jones, Millikens Bend, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 6 Ebrill, 1863
f. 80 John Griffith Jones, Millikens Bend, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 11 Ebrill, 1863
ff. 81-82 John Griffith Jones, Planhigfa Homes, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 16 Ebrill, 1863
f. 83 John Griffith Jones, Dim gwybodaeth ar gael
ff. 84-85 r. John Griffith Jones, Planhigfa Homes, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 20 Ebrill, 1863
ff. 87-88 John Griffith Jones, Planhigfa Homes, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 24 Ebrill, 1863
f. 89 John Griffith Jones, Memphis, Tennessee at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 25 Ebrill, 1863
f. 91 John Griffith Jones, Mississipi, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 6 Mai, 1863
f. 93 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll Rockey Springs, Mississipi, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winsconsin, 10 Mai, 1863
ff. 95-96 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 29 Mai, 1863
f. 99 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 9 Meh. 1863
ff. 101-102 r. John Griffith Jones, at Owen Jones, Beaver Dam, Dodge County, 10 Meh. 1863
ff. 103-104 r. John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 17 Meh. 1863
ff. 105-106 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 20 Meh. 1863
ff. 108-109 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 1 Gorff. 1863
f. 110 r. John Griffith Jones, Dim gwybodaeth ar gael
ff. 111-112 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 10 Gorff. 1863
ff. 113-114 John Griffith Jones, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin , 12 Gorff. 1863
ff. 116-117 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 25 Gorff. 1863
ff. 119-120 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 27 Gorff. 1863
ff. 122-123 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 30 Gorff. 1863
ff. 125-126 r. John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Vicksburgh, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 4 Awst 1863
ff. 128-129 Thomas E. Hughes, Vicksburgh, Mississipi, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 6 Awst 1863
ff. 131-132 r. John Griffith Jones, Vicksburgh, Mississipi, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 12 Awst 1863
ff. 134-135 John Griffith Jones, Vicksburgh, Mississipi, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 17 Awst 1863
ff. 137-138 John Griffith Jones, Vicksburgh, Mississipi, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 21 Awst 1863
ff. 140-141 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Orleans Newydd at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 27 Awst 1863
ff. 143-144 John Jones, Llanrug, Bryn y fedwen, Llanrug, at John Griffiths Jones, 1 Medi 1863
ff. 145-146 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Orleans Newydd, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 10 Medi 1863
ff. 148-149 r. John Griffith Jones, Orleans Newydd, Louisiana at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 15 Medi 1863
ff. 151-151 John Griffith Jones, Carlton, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 19 Medi 1863
ff. 154-155 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Orleans Newydd, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 22 Medi 1863
f. 157 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Orleans Newydd, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 26 Medi 1863
f. 159 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger Orleans Newydd, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 1 Hyd. 1863
f. 161 John Griffith Jones, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 6 Hyd. 1863
ff. 163-164 John Griffith Jones, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 12 Hyd. 1863
ff. 166-167 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll Vermillion Ville, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 17 Hyd. 1863
ff. 169-170 John Griffith Jones, Barnes Landing, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 31 Hyd. 1863
f. 172 John Griffith Jones, Tach x Rhag. 1862
ff. 173-174 John Griffith Jones, Vermillion Bayou, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 6 Tach. 1863
ff. 176-177 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger New Iberia, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 12 Tach. 1863
ff. 179-180 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger New Iberia, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 21 Tach. 1863
ff. 182-183 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger New Iberia, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 25 Tach. 1863
ff. 185-186 John Griffith Jones, Gwersyll ger New Iberia, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 3 Rhag. 1863
f. 188 John Griffith Jones, Brasier City, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 11 Rhag. 1863
f. 191 John Griffith Jones, Algiers, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 18 Rhag. 1863
ff. 194-195 John Griffith Jones, Algiers, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 20 Rhag. 1863
ff. 197-198 John Griffith Jones, Algiers, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 24 Rhag. 1863
ff.200-201 John Griffith Jones, Matarogda Bay, Texas, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 3 Ion. 1864
ff. 203-204 John Griffith Jones, Drouce Point, Texas, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 9 Ion. 1864
ff. 206-207 John Griffith Jones, Drouce Point, Texas, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 16 Ion. 1864
ff. 209-210 John Griffith Jones, Drouce Point, Texas, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 15 Chwef. 1864
ff. 212-213 John Griffith Jones, Morganza Bend, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 15 Awst 1864
f. 215-216 v. Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Dodge County, at John Griffith Jones, 16 Awst 1864
ff. 218-219 John Griffith Jones, Morganza Bend, Louisiana, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 20 Medi 1864
f. 221 Thomas E. Hughes, Helena, Arkansas, at Richard D. Jones, Beaver Dam, Winconsin, 4 Tach. 1864

John Griffith Jones

Yn 1861 ymunodd John Griffith Jones, o Benisarwaun yn wreiddiol, â Chwmni G Inffantri Gwirfoddol 23ain Wisconsin ym Myddin yr Undeb. Teithiodd y gatrawd trwy dalaith Kentucky i galon tiroedd y Conffederasiwn a chorsydd Louisiana. Mae llythyron John Griffith Jones at ei deulu yn Wisconsin, yn adrodd hanes y rhyfel o safbwynt y milwr cyffredin. Wrth adrodd am erchyllterau rhyfel, salwch a marwolaeth mae'n llwyddo hefyd i sôn am fywyd beunyddiol ac am hynt a helynt ei gyd-Gymry yn y fyddin. Mae'r llythyron yn cofnodi y pethau rhyfeddol a welodd ar ei deithiau - y planhigion dieithr, nadredd enfawr, aligatoriaid a harddwch dinas New Orleans. Mae'r llythyron i gyd mewn Cymraeg.

Lladdwyd John Griffith Jones mewn sgarmes yn 1864.

Cymry America

Yn ystod y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg ymfudodd miloedd o deuluoedd o Gymru i America. Yr oeddent yn gadael er mwyn dianc oddi wrth fywyd caled a thlodi yng Nghymru. Ymsefydlodd y mwyafrif yn nhaleithiau Efrog Newydd, Pennsylfania, Ohio a Winsconsin yn y gogledd. Cadwodd nifer o'r cymunedau Cymraeg yn y taleithiau hyn eu diwylliant cynhenid yn fyw drwy gyfrwng crefydd, eisteddfodau, a chylchgronnau fel Y Drych.

Caethwasanaeth a'r Rhyfel Cartref, 1861-5

Taleithiau Undeb y gogledd a thaleithiau Conffederasiwn y de oedd yn ymladd yn erbyn ei gilydd yn ystod y Rhyfel Cartref. Yr oedd caethwasanaeth yn gyffredin yn y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg, yn arbennig yn nhaleithiau amaethyddol y Conffederasiwn. Ofnai'r taleithiau hyn fod gan Abraham Lincoln, yr arlywydd oedd newydd ei ethol, gynlluniau i ddiddymu'r fasnach gaethweision. O ganlyniad ymadawodd taleithiau'r Conffederasiwn â'r Undeb ac fe arweiniodd hyn at ryfel. Bu hyd at 3 miliwn o filwyr yn ymladd yn ystod y rhyfel a lladdwyd dros 600,000 yn y brwydro.

Darllen pellach

  • Hunter, Jerry. Llwch Cenhedloedd: Y Cymru a Rhyfel Cartref America. Llanrwst: Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 2003.